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An Excerpt From Twenty-Four Notes That Tap Deep Emotions: The story of America’s most famous bugle call


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An Excerpt From Twenty-Four Notes That Tap Deep Emotions:
The Story of America’s Most Famous Bugle Call
© Jari Villanueva
01.-24 Notes

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By Jari Villanueva

Of all the military bugle calls, none is so easily recognized or more apt to evoke emotion than the call Taps. The melody is both eloquent and haunting and the history of its origin is interesting and somewhat clouded in controversy. In the British Army, a similar type call known as The Last Post has been sounded over soldiers’ graves since 1885, but the use of Taps is unique to the United States military, since the call is sounded at funerals, wreath-laying and memorial services.

02.-24 Notes

Taps began as a revision for the signal of Extinguish Lights (Lights Out) at the end of the day. Up until the Civil War, the infantry call for Extinguish Lights was the printed in Silas Casey’s (1801-1882) Infantry Tactics and other manuals, the music which had been borrowed from the French. The music for Taps was adapted by Union General Daniel Butterfield for his brigade (Third Brigade, First Division, Fifth Army Corps, Army of the Potomac) in July, 1862.

03.-24 Notes

Daniel Adams Butterfield (1831-1901) was born in Utica, New York and graduated from Union College at Schenectady. He was the eastern superintendent of the American Express Company in New York when the Civil War broke out. A Colonel in the 12th Regiment of the New York State Militia, he was promoted to Brigadier General and given command of a brigade of the 5th Corps of the Army of the Potomac.

04.-24 Notes

During the Peninsular Campaign Butterfield distinguished himself when, during the Battle of Gaines Mill and despite an injury, he seized the colors of the 83rd Pennsylvania and rallied the regiment at a critical time in the battle. He was awarded the Medal of Honor for that act of heroism.05.-24 Notes

As the story goes, General Butterfield was not pleased with the call for Extinguish Lights, feeling that the call was too formal to signal the days end, and with the help of the brigade bugler, Oliver Willcox Norton (1839-1920), wrote Taps to honor his men while in camp at Harrison’s Landing, Virginia, following the Seven Days battle. These battles took place during the Peninsular Campaign of 1862. The new call, sounded that night in July, 1862, soon spread to other units of the Union Army and was reportedly also used by the Confederates. Taps was made an official bugle call after the war.06.-24 Notes

07. -24 Notes

The highly romantic account of how Butterfield composed the call surfaced in 1898 following a magazine article written that summer. The August, 1898 issue of Century Magazine contained an article called “The Trumpet in Camp and Battle,” by Gustav Kobbe, (1857-1918) a music historian and critic. He was writing about the origin of bugle calls in the military and in reference to Taps, wrote:

“In speaking of our trumpet calls I purposely omitted one with which it seemed most appropriate to close this article, for it is the call which closes the soldier’s day… Lights Out. I have not been able to trace this call to any other service. If as seems probable, it was original with Major Seymour, he has given our army the most beautiful of all trumpet-calls.”

08.-24 Notes

Kobbe was using as an authority the Army drill manual on infantry tactics prepared by Major General Emory Upton in 1867 (revised in 1874). The bugle calls in the manual were compiled by Major (later General) Truman Seymour of the 5th U.S. Artillery. Taps was called Extinguish Lights in these manuals since it was to replace the “Lights Out” call disliked by Butterfield. The title of the call was not changed until later, although other manuals started calling it Taps because most soldiers knew it by that name. Since Seymour was responsible for the music in the Army manual, Kobbe assumed that he had written the call. Kobbe’s inability to find the origin of Extinguish Lights (Taps) prompted a letter from Oliver W. Norton in Chicago who claimed he knew how the call came about and that he was the first to perform it.09.-24 Notes

Norton wrote:

“Chicago, August 8, 1898

I was much interested in reading the article by Mr. Gustav Kobbe, on the Trumpet and Bugle Calls, in the August Century. Mr. Kobbe says that he has been unable to trace the origin of the call now used for Taps, or the Go to Sleep, as it is generally called by the soldiers. As I am unable to give the origin of this call, I think the following statement may be of interest to Mr. Kobbe and your readers… During the early part of the Civil War I was bugler at the Headquarters of Butterfield’s Brigade, Morell’s Division, Fitz-John Porter’s Corps, Army of the Potomac. Up to July, 1862, the Infantry call for Taps was that set down in Casey’s Tactics, which Mr. Kobbe says was borrowed from the French.

One day, soon after the seven days battles on the Peninsula, when the Army of the Potomac was lying in camp at Harrison’s Landing, General Daniel Butterfield, then commanding our Brigade, sent for me, and showing me some notes on a staff written in pencil on the back of an envelope, asked me to sound them on my bugle. I did this several times, playing the music as written. He changed it somewhat, lengthening some notes and shortening others, but retaining the melody as he first gave it to me. After getting it to his satisfaction, he directed me to sound that call for Taps thereafter in place of the regulation call. The music was beautiful on that still summer night, and was heard far beyond the limits of our Brigade. The next day I was visited by several buglers from neighboring Brigades, asking for copies of the music which I gladly furnished. I think no general order was issued from army headquarters authorizing the substitution of this for the regulation call, but as each brigade commander exercised his own discretion in such minor matters, the call was gradually taken up through the Army of the Potomac. I have been told that it was carried to the Western Armies by the 11th and 12th Corps, when they went to Chattanooga in the fall of 1863, and rapidly made its way through those armies. I did not presume to question General Butterfield at the time, but from the manner in which the call was given to me, I have no doubt he composed it in his tent at Harrison’s Landing. I think General Butterfield is living at Cold Spring, New York. If you think the matter of sufficient interest, and care to write him on the subject, I have no doubt he will confirm my statement.”

-Oliver W. Norton

The editor did write to Butterfield as suggested by Norton. In answer to the inquiry from the editor of the Century, General Butterfield writing from Gragside, Cold Spring, on August 31, 1898 wrote:

“I recall, in my dim memory, the substantial truth of the statement made by Norton, of the 83rd Pa., about bugle calls. His letter gives the impression that I personally wrote the notes for the call. The facts are, that at the time I could sound calls on the bugle as a necessary part of military knowledge and instruction for an officer commanding a regiment or brigade. I had acquired this as a regimental commander. I had composed a call for my brigade, to precede any calls, indicating that such were calls, or orders, for my brigade alone. This was of very great use and effect on the march and in battle. It enabled me to cause my whole command, at times, in march, covering over a mile on the road, all to halt instantly, and lie down, and all arise and start at the same moment; to forward in line of battle, simultaneously, in action and charge etc. It saves fatigue. The men rather liked their call, and began to sing my name to it. It was three notes and a catch. I can not write a note of music, but have gotten my wife to write it from my whistling it to her, and enclose it. The men would sing, “Dan, Dan, Dan, Butterfield, Butterfield” to the notes when a call came. Later, in battle, or in some trying circumstances or an advance of difficulties, they sometimes sang, “Damn, Damn, Damn, Butterfield, Butterfield.”

10.-24 Notes

The call of Taps did not seem to be as smooth, melodious and musical as it should be, and I called in some one who could write music, and practiced a change in the call of Taps until I had it suit my ear, and then, as Norton writes, got it to my taste without being able to write music or knowing the technical name of any note, but, simply by ear, arranged it as Norton describes. I did not recall him in connection with it, but his story is substantially correct. Will you do me the favor to send Norton a copy of this letter by your typewriter? I have none.”

-Daniel Butterfield

On the surface, this seems to be the true history of the origin of Taps. Indeed, the many articles written about Taps cite this story as the beginning of Butterfield’s association with the call. Certainly, Butterfield never went out of his way to claim credit for its composition and it wasn’t until the Century article that the origin came to light.

More information on Gustav Kobbe© can be found HERE11.-24 Notes

There are however, significant differences in Butterfield’s and Norton’s stories. Norton says that the music given to him by Butterfield that night was written down on an envelope while Butterfield wrote that he could not read or write music! Also Butterfield’s words seem to suggest that he was not composing a melody in Norton’s presence, but actually arranging or revising an existing one. As a commander of a brigade, he knew of the bugle calls needed to relay troop commands. All officers of the time were required to know the calls and were expected to be able to play the bugle. Butterfield was no different – he could sound the bugle but could not read music. As a colonel of the 12th NY Regiment, before the war, he had ordered his men to be thoroughly familiar with calls and drills.

12.-24 Notes

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  1. Jennifer Hollings Jennifer Hollings November 13, 2011

    Does anyone know why “Taps” is so called?

  2. Mikayla Faye Mikayla Faye September 9, 2011

    This was super helpful, thank you!

    God Bless,

  3. Bruce Keddie Bruce Keddie August 26, 2011

    Stumbled on this website and found it of great interest. We here in New Zealand are preparing for the 75th anniversary of US Marines coming to support us during WW II.
    I served 20+ years in the NZ Army mostly in a unit called NZ Scots. I play the bagpipes and after looking at the music on this site have tried it on my pipes. You may be interested to know that it sounds very special and just as moving.

  4. Phyllis Scott Johnson Phyllis Scott Johnson May 24, 2011

    In searching on Google Images for artwork by my great-uncle, Julian Scott, I came across his painting of the wounded buglar in your article. however there was no credit given in article or a caption about the painting. What is your source? I own a grise painting and a lithograph of it. Do you know the story in the painting? Boy is signaling a retreat,,,,and more. Your article by Forbes is great, and as an artist I’m sure he would have liked to see credits given to all the artists in the story.

  5. Chris Sutton Chris Sutton May 13, 2011

    Mr. Villanueva, it was a pleasure to hear you speak at the Jefferson Education Society in May 2011. This proved to be a delightful introduction to the history of Taps for me. I enjoyed hearing you play Taps and the many bugle calls used during the Cival War era.

    Thank you for your extensive research and presentation.


  6. Roy Jaruk Roy Jaruk March 8, 2011

    The bugle call General Butterfield did not like is the opening phrase of today’s “Tattoo.” It’s a rather long call and is/was supposed to be sounded an hour before Taps to start Scouts or soldiers on their way back to their quarters. I can recall being ordered to sound it by our Scoutmaster at summer camp and afterwards being asked by my fellow Scouts if I was just jamming or what.

    Taps, whether written by Butterfield or simply adapted from a phrase of an earlier call written in Scott’s Tactics, is much more appropriate to the end of the day, and of course for use at a military funeral.

  7. Ayse Atasoy Ayse Atasoy December 16, 2010

    Dear Sir,

    I am one of those to whom this little girl’s performance video was sent to.
    The mail i received had an introductory paragraph saying that it the song was played in the movie “From here to eternity” and ever since was used in military funerals ceremonies!

    I just wanted to check the reliability of the information… you can guesse the rest : from one page to another; from one text to another… a curious mind surf on internet… => and here i am.

    I just wanted to thank you for all that you have written; or let me say in a most respectfull and proper way : Thank you for who you are.. because all that you have written make you as You..
    You have enlightened one more.
    A new admirer of yours from Istanbul

  8. Richard Royer Richard Royer November 18, 2010

    This site and your fine research are great. You really do not know how many people do not know about this.

    Richard Royer
    ALR CH 193 Chapin, S.C.

  9. John Rogers John Rogers November 16, 2010

    First learned and sung at evening campfire at Scout Camp, 1939.
    So moving.

  10. Seymour Ubiles Seymour Ubiles October 22, 2010

    Fantastic post of yours, many thanks. The blog just got a new reader.

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